poniedziałek, 23 lutego 2015

Javascript Array Methods - Slice(), Splice(), Map(), Reduce(), ForEach(), Some(), Every(), IndexOf(), Concat()

Recently, I have noticed that I have problems with remember the difference betwean JS method Array.prototype.slice and Array.prototype.splice, so I decided for learning purposes to write this short post as a reference about JS array methods. In this post I included few commonly methods:

  1. slice()
  2. splice()
  3. map()
  4. reduce()
  5. forEach()
  6. some()
  7. every()
  8. indexOf()
  9. concat()


Slice method create new array which containes shallow copy of elements from original array.This method does not change original array.

Syntax: array.slice(begin, end)

Begin parameter is the index of element from where the copy process starts. Slice copy element until it reach the end, wherein element on index end is not copied into new array. When parameter begin or end is negative, index of the element is counted from the end of the array.

var array = 'lukasz-szewczak'.split('');
// ["l", "u"]
// ["l", "u", "k", "a", "s", "z", "-", "s", "z", "e", "w", "c", "z"]
//["s", "z", "e", "w", "c", "z", "a", "k"]

We can use slice method to convert array like object into array. Very often you can meet wih calling of this method inside function to converte arguments object into array.

function list() {
  return Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 0);
list(1, 2, 3); 
// [1, 2, 3]

Instead of Array.prototype.slice we can use [].slice.call;


Splice change the original array by removing or adding new elements

Syntax: array.splice(start, deleteCount, item1, item2, ...)

Start parameter define index from which array will be changed, negative value mean that searching start from the end of the array, deleteCount describes how many elements are to be removed from the array.ItemN describes the element to be added to the array. Method returns array of deleted elements.

var array = [1, 2, 3, 9, 10];
var removed = array.splice(3, 0, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8);
// [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] 
// []
removed = array.splice(3,5);
// [1, 2, 3, 9, 10]
// [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]


The map method transforms the array by applying a function to all of its elements and building a new array from the returned values. The new array will have the same length as the input array.

Syntax: array.map(callback)

Callback function which generates new array element is invoke with this three arguments:

  • currentValue - current element from original array
  • index - index of current element
  • orgArr - original array on which transformation is made
var array = [1, 2, 3, 4];
var plusOne = array.map(function(el, index, orgArr) {
            return el + 1;
//[2, 3, 4, 5]


Reduce is one of the method I ignored for a long time, because I don't fuly understand it, but my attitiude changed after I started reading a book Eloquent Javascript.

The reduce method is used to calculate a single value from an array.

Syntax: array.reduce(callback, initialValue)

reduce executes callback function once for each element in the array, which receives four arguments:

  • previousValue - value from previous invocation of the callback function or initialValue if supplied
  • currentValue - current element from the array
  • index - index of the current element
  • array - the array reduce was called upon
var numbers = [12,34,23,56,78,34];
function max(array){
   function mathMax(a, b) {return Math.max(a, b);}
   return array.reduce(mathMax);

function avarage(array){
   function plus(a, b) {return a+b;}
   return array.reduce(plus) / array.length;

And here is another example of reduce, where I change array into the list object using reduce method. (This is my result for exercise from the book Eloquent Javascript)

function arrayToList(arr){
   return arr.reverse().reduce(function(previousVal, currentVal){
         if (previousVal){
            return {
               value: currentVal,
         else {
            return {
               value: currentVal,
               rest: null


The standard method (from ES5) to iterate over array. Thanks to this method code is shorter and cleaner, there is probably one small problem that is you cannot break this method using break keyword like the classical for loop (http://stackoverflow.com/questions/6260756/how-to-stop-javascript-foreach). The forEach method takes one argument whis is function to excecuted on every element.

Syntax: array.forEach(callback)

Callback function takes three arguments:

  • currentValue – current element being processed
  • index – index of the current element
  • array
[10,20,30,40,50,60].forEach(function (element, index) {
    console.log('Element: {', element, '}, index {', index,'}');
// Element: { 10 }, index { 0 }
// Element: { 20 }, index { 1 }
// Element: { 30 }, index { 2 }
// Element: { 40 }, index { 3 }
// Element: { 50 }, index { 4 }
// Element: { 60 }, index { 5 }


If You want to check wheater at least one element in array meets your specific criteria you can use method some which will return true as soon as it find element meeting this specific criteria.

Syntax: array.some(callback)

callback is a function to test if an element meets our criteria. Callback function takes three arguments:

  • currentValue – current element being processed
  • index – index of the current element
  • array
function ifElementBiggerThen30(element){ return element > 30;}


On the other hand, if You want to check if all elements in array meet yours specific criteria you can use method every which will return false as soon as it find element which does not meet your criteria.

Syntax: array.every(callback);

callback is a function to test if an element meets our criteria. Callback function takes three arguments:

  • currentValue – current element being processed
  • index – index of the current element
  • array


Next method can help you find all occurence of element in array

Syntax: array.indexOf(searchElement, fromIndex)

searchElement is of course element we are looking for in the array, if element is founded then method returs it index or -1 if no element is found. indexOf compares element with searchEelement using strict equality ( === )



If you want to join value(s) or arrays with existing array we can use concat method which joins all provided values with array on which it was called upon and return new array.

Syntax: array.concat(value1, value2, ...)

Where parameter valueN can be an array or not;

var some_array = [1,2,4,6,'a','b','c'],
new_array = [10,9,8,7,'e','d','c'].concat(some_array,'D');
//[10, 9, 8, 7, "e", "d", "c", 1, 2, 4, 6, "a", "b", "c", "D"]

Writing this reference helped me a lot to consolidate my knowledge about the above-mentioned array methods. Now I will go to check new ES6 arrays method. :-)

niedziela, 8 lutego 2015

ES6 Overview - Diagram

I’ve got few provisions on this year :-) Start to write with English on my blog and start to learn ECMAScript 6 features. There are a lot of resources on Internet with this topic and few of them I write below

  1.  Understanding ECMAScript 6 by Nicholas C. Zakas
  2.  https://github.com/lukehoban/es6features - nice overview of ECMAScript 6 features
  3. http://wiki.ecmascript.org/doku.php?id=harmony:proposals
  4. http://tc39wiki.calculist.org/es6/
  5. You Don't Know JS: ES6 & Beyond
  6. https://github.com/ericdouglas/ES6-Learning - List of resources to learn ECMAScript 6!

I want to start my journey with ES6 by finding new stuff and visualized it for better learning process and after that I will try in new posts to go over this new features to get better understanding of it. But for now I prepare this simple diagram for ES6.